THE 10th CONSTITUTIONAL (TENTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1961


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THE 10th CONSTITUTIONAL (TENTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1961

what is THE 10th CONSTITUTIONAL (TENTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1961

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Bill, 1961 (Bill No. forty-three of 1961) that was enacted because of the CONSTITUTION (Tenth Amendment) Act,1961

STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS



The folks and therefore the Varishta council of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli have repeatedly thoroughbred their request to the govt. of Asian country|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} for integration of their territories with the Union of India to that they justly belong. Their request was recently embodied during a formal Resolution adopted by the Varishta council on the twelfth Gregorian calendar month, 1961.

In deference to the will and request of the folks of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli for integration of their territories with the Union of the Asian countrythe govt. of Asian country|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} have set that these territories ought to type a part of the Union of India.

It is planned to specify these areas expressly because of the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli by amending the primary Schedule to the Constitution. it's more planned to amend clause (1) of article 240 of the Constitution to incorporate in this the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli so as to alter the President to form laws for the peace, progress and smart government of the territory.

The Bill seeks to offer result to those proposals.

NEW DELHI. national leader.

Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Bill, 1956 (Bill No. thirty-five of 1956) that was enacted because of the CONSTITUTION (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956

STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS
While "taxes on the sale or purchase of products apart from newspapers" is an associated entry within the State List, article 286 of the Constitution subjects the States' power to impose such taxes to four restrictions, of that 2 area unit total and 2 area unit partial. underneath clause (1) of the article, a State is debarred from imposing such a tax once the sale or purchase takes place outside the State or within the course all imported into, or export from, the country. With relation to the primary restriction, namely, the non-taxability of sales outside the State, an evidence given within the clause that "a sale or purchase shall be deemed to possess taken place within the State within which merchandise has truly been delivered as a right away results of such sale or purchase for the aim of consumption in this State". Then, underneath clause (2), a State is debarred from imposing the tax on inter-State sales except into date as Parliament might otherwise offer. Lastly, underneath clause (3), Parliament is authorized to declare the products that area unit essential to the lifetime of the community, and once such a declaration has been created, any law created by a State general assembly imposing a tax on the sale or purchase of this merchandise must receive the President's assent so as to be effective.

High judicial authorities have found the interpretation of the article a troublesome task and expressed divergent views on the scope and resultespecially, of the reason in clause (1) and of clause (2). the bulk read of the Supreme Court within the State of Mumbai v. the United Motors (India) Ltd., (1953) S.C.R. 1069, was that sub-clause (a) and therefore the clarification in clause (1) prohibited the taxation of a purchase involving inter-State components by all States except the State within which the products area unit delivered for the aim of consumption in this, and more a lot of, that clause (2) didn't have an effect on the facility of that State to tax the inter-State sale albeit Parliament had not created a law removing the ban obligatory by that clause. This resulted in dealers resident in one State being subjected to the excise jurisdiction and procedure of many different States with that that they had dealings within the traditional course of their business. Two-and-a-half years later, the second a part of this call was reversed by the Supreme Court within the geographical area Immunity Company Ltd. v. the State of the province. (1955) S.C.A. 1140 however here too the Court wasn't unanimous.

In pursuance of clause (3) of the article, Parliament passed associate Act in 1952 declaring variety of products like foodstuffs of assorted types, cloth, raw cotton, kine feeds, iron and steel, coal, etc., to be essential to the lifetime of the community. Since this declaration couldn't have an effect on pre-existing State laws imposing excise on these merchandises, the result was a good inequality from State to States, not solely within the vary of exempted merchandisehowever additionally within the rates applicable to them.

The Taxation Enquiry Commission, once examining the matter with care and thoroughness, have created sure recommendations which can be summarised as follows. In essence, excise should still be a State supply of revenue and its levy and administration should considerably pertain to the State Governments. The sphere of power and responsibility of the State might, however, be same to finishwhich of the Union to startonce the excise of 1State impinges, administratively on the dealers, and in fiscal matters on the shoppers, of another State. Broadly, therefore, inter-State sales ought to be the priority of the Union, however, the responsibilities relating the Union may well be exercised through the State Governments, and in any case, the revenue ought to fittingly hinge upon them. Intra-State sales, on the opposite hand, ought to be left to the States, however with one necessary exception. Where, as an examplestaple made during a State is very important from the purpose of read of the patron or the business of another State, sure restrictions got to be placed on the burdensome power of the government, as otherwise it will result in a rise within the price of the factory-made article, whether or not such manufacture takes place within the State that produces the staple, or in another State that imports the fabric from that State. In either case, to the extent that the finished merchandise area unit consumed during a State apart from the one that taxes the raw material, the rise in price on account of the tax could be a matter of direct concern to the patron of another State. Such cases of intra-State sales ought to appropriately be brought underneath the complete management of the Union. These recommendations of the Commission are typically accepted by all the State Governments.

The object of this Bill is to offer result to the recommendations of the Commission as regards the modification of the constitutional provisions about excise.

In clause a pair ofit's planned to feature a brand new entry 92A within the Union List inserting taxes on inter-State sales and purchases among the exclusive legislative and govt power of the Union, and to form entry fifty-four of the State List "subject to the provisions" of this new entry.

In clause threeit's planned to feature these taxes to the list given in clause (1) of article 269, so that, though they'll be levied and picked up in accordance with associate Act of Parliament, they'll not type a part of the Consolidated Fund of Asian countryhowever, can accrue to the States themselves in accordance with such principles of distribution as is also developed by Parliament by law. an extra provision is planned in article 269 expressly empowering Parliament to formulate by law principles for crucial once a purchase or purchase of products takes place within the course of inter-State trade or commerce.

It is planned in clause four to omit from clause (1) of article 286 the reason that has given rise to a good deal of legal disceptation and sensible problemvisible of the centralization of inter-State excise planned in clause a pair of this Bill clause (2) of article 286 in its gift type can stop to be applicable. In its place it's planned to insert a provision empowering Parliament to formulate principles for crucial once a purchase or purchase of products takes place (a) outside a State, or (b) within the course all important of the products into the territory of Asian country|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} or (c) within the course of export of the products out of the territory of India.

It is more planned to switch clause (3) of article 286 by a brand new clause on the lines suggested by the Taxation Enquiry Commission.

Under this revised clause Parliament can have the facility to declare by law the products that area unit of special importance in inter-State trade or commerce and additionally to specify the restrictions and conditions to that any State law (whether created before or once the Parliamentary law) are subject in relation to the system of levy, rates and different incidents of the tax on the sale or purchase of this merchandise.

[BW DELHI; MANILA crowned head.

The thirtieth Gregorian calendar month, 1956.

THE CONSTITUTION (TENTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1961 [16th August, 1961.] associate Act more to amend the Constitution of the Asian country. BE it enacted by Parliament within the Twelfth Year of the Republic of Asian country as follows:-

1. Short title and commencement.-(1) This Act is also referred to as the Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1961.

(2) It shall be deemed to possess inherit force on the eleventh day of August 1961.

2. modification of the primary Schedule to the Constitution.-In the primary Schedule to the Constitution, underneath the heading "THE UNION TERRITORIES", once entry half dozenthe subsequent entry shall be inserted, namely:-

"7. Dadra and therefore the territory that straight off before Nagar Haveli the eleventh day of August 1961 was comprised in Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli.".

3. modification of article 240.-In article 240 of the Constitution, in clause (1), once entry (b), the subsequent entry shall be inserted, namely:-

"(c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli."




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