buddhism 4 noble truth and ,buddhism principles

Buddhism 4 noble truth and, Buddhism principles
Buddhism is nothing but a religion and typical views that encompasses a variety of tradition belief as well as practice mainly depends on the teaching of Lord Buddha.
Buddhism 4 noble truth and, Buddhism principles

Who is Gautam Buddha  a Brief History :

1.Original Name- Siddhartha.
2. Given name - Buddha, Shakya Muni or Guatami.
3.Birth- Lumbini in Kapil Vastu in 563BC on Vhaisakha Poornima near Nepal Country.
4.Wife' s name- Yasodhara.
4.Father's Name- Shuddhodhana,  chief of republican Sakya clan who administrated from Kapilavastu in the kausala Kingdom.
5. Mother's Name- Mahamaya, was the princess of Kosala dynasty delivered Buddha and passed away soon after the birth of Gautam Buddha. So Siddhartha was brought up by the stepmother Gautami, thus he inherited his name ' Gautam'.
6.Place of Enlightenment- Uruvela, under the pipal tree which is also known as Bodhi Tree.

The doctrine of Buddhism or Philosophy of Buddhism.

The principle parts of Buddhism elaborated or discussed 'four truths' eightfold paths, attainment of Nirvana and social code of conduct. It mainly focussed on the moral life of a person rather than the belief of the existence of any God or idolatry. It rejected any type of Vedic rituals caste and creed system. It mainly advocated on the nonviolence " Ahimsa". Buddha himself explained his thought or teaching just like a raft, which assists one to cross the turbulent river of life and sufferings. Once crossed we need not cart the raft with us. His teaching depends on three important jewels or pillars.

1. Buddha means enlightened or founder or teacher.

2. Dharma means teaching or doctrine or philosophy.

3. Sangha means the order of the Buddhist monks or nun.

The Ashtanga Marga( eightfold path) of Buddhism:
There is eightfold marga in the buddha religion that avoids the extreme luxury and advocates severe austerity. The ashtanga marga encompasses the followings:
1.Right views or thought( samma sankappa)
It symbolizes having emotional intelligence and acting from love and compassion.
2.Right vision or understanding( samma ditthi)
It denotes a perfect and complete understanding of the reality of nature and ways of transformation.
3.Right speech(sama vaka)
It advocates the clear, truthful communication to others.
4.Right Conduct( samma Kamata)
It advocates the ethical aspect of one's life based on principally of non-exploitation to others as well as himself.
5.Right livelihood(( Sama ajivaka)
Iy symbolizes the livelihood totally based on the correct action done by one. Here one should not exploit others to earn a livelihood.
6.Right effort or energy or vitality( sama vayama)
It signifies our life energy in the field of transformation.
7.Right mindfulness(samma sathi)
It signifies oneself to watch one's behaviour.
8.Right Meditation.( samma samadhi).
It signifies in the field of enlightenment.

Contemporary monks of Buddhism in the time of Buddha.
1. Upali was the master of Vinaya.
2. Sariputta nurtured deep insight into the Dharma.
3. Ananda was the most lifelong disciple of the buddha.

4. Anuradha was the main master of right mindfulness.

5. Mahakassapa was the chief president of the Buddhist council held at Rjagriha.

Important Buddhist writer of Buddhisms:

1. Buddha Ghos who was mainly a pali writer lived in the 5th century. He is mainly known for his masterpiece" Visuddhimagga"- the path of purification. It describes the path of liberation.

2. Dhramakiriti who was another eminent Buddhist writer of the 7th century AD; was a logician and dialectician.

3. Dinnaga was also a Buddhist writer and founder of Buddhist logic.

4. Asvaghosha was also a popular Buddhist writer of Sanskrit language popularly famous for his " Buddhacharita".He also was an expert in drama, music, scholar, and debater.

5. Nagarjuna was a writer of Buddhism and the founder of " Madhyamaka school.

Important Buddhism Council:

1.First Buddhist council in 483 Bc at Rajgira under the chairman of  Mahakassapa during the reign of Ajtshatru, Vinaya Pitaka composed by Upali and Sutta Pitaka composed by Ananda.

2.Second Buddhist council in 383 BCE at Vaishali under the chairman of Sabakami during the reign of Kalasoka,
3. Third Buddhist summit held in 250 Bc during the reign of Ashoka at Payaliputravunder the supervision of Mogaliputta Tisha and Abhidhamma Pitaka composed.

4. Fourth Buddhist summit held in AD 72 at Kashmir during the reign of Kanishka under the chairmanship of Vasumitra, Buddhist divided into branches like Hinayana and Mahayana.

 List of famous Buddhist Universities:
1Nalanda University at Badagon of Bihar founded by Gupta ruler Kumar Gupta -1st.

2.Jagadal at Bengal founded by pala ruler Rama pala.

3.Vallahavi at Gujarth founded by Maitrak ruler Bhattarka.

4.Somapuri at north Bengal founded by Dharmapala.

4.Odantapuri at Bihar founded by Gopal.

5.Vikramshila at Vagalpur of Bihar founded by pala ruler Dharma pala.

Main art and architecture of Buddhism.

■Art evidence of Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda respectively.
■Barabar Hills at Gaya.
■ Art of Ghandhara.
■Stone pillar of Gaya and Sanchi and Bharat.

Main literature of Buddhism:
□Sutta Pitaka is the collection of buddha's sermon and saying usually divided into five groups.
□Vinaya Pitaka is the collection of rules and regulations of the monastic principle of Buddhist monks.
□Abhidharma Pitaka is the same philosophy or doctrine of the teaching of buddha but it deals sutta Pitaka with deeply.
□Miranda Pancho is the course of discussion between Menander and Buddhist monk Nagasena.
□ Jataka is also important religious literature of Buddhists which is also a collection of over 500 poems. It actually is a description of the previous birth of Buddha.

Some Crucial Mudra of Buddhisms:

1.Ganaya Mudra.( Mudra of Knowledge).
2.Vitarka Mudra( Mudra of discussion).
3.Varada Mudra( favorable mudra).
4.Dhyana Mudra( Meditation Mudra).
5.Dharmachakra Mudra(  Sermon preaching mudra)
6.Abhaya mudra( Mudra of no fear).
7.Bhhmisparsha mudra( ( gesture mudra during the calling of the earth).
8.Vajra mudra( thunder mudra).
9.Karana mudra( mudra related to the removal of evil forces and sickness as well as negative thought).

The decline of Buddhism:
1. By the Ad 12th century, Buddhism started to disappear in India. some Bhramna rulers like Pushyamitra shunga and the Huna king Mihirakula tyrannized and persecuted the Buddhists because they were devoted to God Shiva. Besides some foreign invaders like Mongols, Turki also declined this religion or belief and they compiled the people of India not to bear such religion.
2. Some Buddhists monk abandoned the main language of the religion 'pali' which was the common language of common people and they took to Sanskrit which was otherwise the language of intellectuals people. So, Common people started to go away from this religion.

3. People started to practice idol worship which was against the ascetic value of Buddhist monks. Thus, the buddha religion started to degrade and their preaching.

4. Buddha religion stuck to the same rituals and practices which was earlier introduced but it was denounced or gave up by the people. In the early period, it was accepted by the common people, inspired by its reform. But later they were persecuted and tyrannized by the Brahmanism.

Two sects of Buddhisms.
1.Hinayana or Lesser wheel.
It is the religion without any form of God. Karma takes one to God. Nirvana is the extinction of all. Pali is the principal language of preaching. Its followers believed in the original teachings of a buddha.

2.Mahayana or greater wheel

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