Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc
Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

Topic Discussed

➦What are the 16 Mahajanapadas?
➥What is the meaning of Mahajanapada?
➦Which was the most powerful Mahajanapada?
➥What were the two types of Mahajanapadas?

There were two types of Mahajanapada or independent states or territories in the 6th Century BC 1.Monarchial independent territory 2. Non Monarchial or Repbublic independent territory.
What are the monarchical independent territories?
1.Anga, 2.Magadha,3.Kashi,4.Kosala, 5.Vatsa,6.Chedi, 7.Shursena, 8.Avanti, 9.Matsya,10.Ghandhara.

➤Which mahajanapada was most powerful in the ancient history of India of the 6th century?
➤What are the nonmonarchial mahajanapadas or independent territories?

11.Vajji,12.Malla,13.Kuru.14.Panchal,15.Kamboja,16.Ashmaka,
which mahajanapada was most powerful in ancient era of India.

➤How many mahajanapadas ( Independent territory)were there in the ancient history of India?

➤when did the mahajanapadas emerge?

➤which mahajanapadas were republic administration system?
which mahajanapada was the southernmost?

Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

Details of Mahajanapada Upsc

💬Mahajanapada actually represents the system of the state which emerged in the 6th century BCE in ancient History of India. The emergence of Mahajanapada in the era of the ancient period changed the background of economic, social and political changes. In the 6th century is known as the age of second urbanization in the Indian subcontinent. After the decline of Harappa and Mahenjodaro of Indus Valley Civilization, urbanization started to develop again not in the bank of Indus plain by in the Ganga basin which included Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, and Haryana. This land was very fertile due to heavy rainfall as well as these places were a good source or iron production. With the help of iron, they started to use iron in their plowshare, scythe and many other agriculture stools which helped them to cultivate as well as to clear out the bushes and trees. Besides, they used iron in their weapons and thus the tribes started to become ferocious to occupy the other occupied land and finally started to settle permanently. The havoc use of iron in daily life and in war enabled them to gain more Jana( territory) and thereby this Territory became very large and this large territory is called Mahajanapada. It is rather interesting to know that most of the Janpada located in north India rather than south India. So on the 6th. Century Bc is called the turning point in early Indian history.


 Main Literary  Source of Mahajanapada.


💬According to Buddhists text Anguttara Nikaya which is a part of sutta Pitaka there 16 independent states in the early history of India.
Besides the Jaina text, Bhagavati Sutra which is another Buddhist text Mahavastu also gave reference to 16 Mahajanapada.

Classification of Mahajanapada( Independent States).



1.Monarchical states


  • Anga
  • Chedi
  • Avanti
  • Koshala
  • Ghandara
  • Kashi
  • Magadha
  • Vatsa
  • Shursena
  • Matsya


2.Non Monarchial States or Rebublic states.



  • Kamabas
  • Videhas
  • Jantrikas
  • Bhaggas
  • Kalamas
  • Licchavis
  • Kamboj
  • Kuru
  • Panchal
  • Koliyas
  • Malla
  • Moriya
  • Shyaka
  • Vajji

Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc
Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

💬Here we provided a list of Mahajanapads and their Capital.


Kashi:
The capital of this Majanapada was Vatanosi now in Benaras. Kashi was captured by Kosala. It was a very powerful Mahajanpada in the early history of India and mainly famous for cotton and textile and horses.

Kosala: The capital of this Mahajanapada was Shravasti now in Ayodhya. The king of this Mahajanapada was Prasenjit. He was the only person contemporary to the friend of Gautam Buddha. It was the tribal republic of Shyakas of Kapilabastu. The birthplace of Gautam Buddha Lumbini is also located in this mahajanapada.
An important river named Sarayu cuts this mahajanpada into two parts, the north part, and the south part. The capital of the north and south parts are Shravasti and Kushavati respectively.

Anga:  Anga is now in East Bihar, is also located in the confluence of Ganga and Champa rivers. Champa was the capital of it. Anga was the main hub of trade and commerce of the early history of India. Maurya emperor, Bibisara annexed this mahajanapaa in the middle of 6th century BC.

: Vajji is now in north Bihar, the capital of Vajji was Champa. It was the confederacy of eight or nine clans of which Lichhavis Videhans was the most important. Mithila was the capital of Videhasa. The important king of the independent territory was Chetak. Mahavira belonged to the Jnatrikas clan. Ajatsatru was invaded and assimilated with the Magadha empire.

Malla: Malla is now in Gorakpur region of Uttarpradesh district, Pavapuri was the Capital of it. Gautam Buddha, the preacher of Buddhism died in the vicinity of this Mahajanapada. Later this independent territory annexed to Magadha after the death of buddha.

Chedi: chedi is now in the eastern part of Bundelkhand in central India. The capital of chedi was Shuktimati. Shishupala was the important king of this Mahajanapada. A branch of chedis founded a royal dynasty in the kingdom of Kalinga. According to Puranas, Shishupala was the ally of Durjadhana of Kuru as well as an ally of Jarasandha. He was also an opponent of Vasudeva Krishna. Later he was killed by Vasudeva Krishna during the Rajasuya Sacrifice held by king Yudhistira

Vatsa: Vatsa is now on the bank of river Yamuna. The capital of Vatsa was Kaushambi which was at the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna close to Allahabad. The important king of this Mahajanapada was Udayana. King, Udayana was the main hero of the Sanskrit drama viz" Svapnavasavadatta of Bhasa",  " Priyadarshika"& " Ratnavali of " Harsha Charitra. Udayana was the most powerful king.

Kurus: Kurus is located in modern days in the MeerutDelhi region of India.The capital of Kurus was Hastinapur.There ia reference of this important Independent territory in Scripture of  Hindus"The Mahabharata".During the Buddha time this Kingdom was reigned by Korayvya.our epic poem" Mahabharata" tells the conflict between two branches of the reigning Kuru clan of the Rigvedic era.

Panchala: This union territory is located in Rohillakhand in the modern western Uttarpradesh of India. Kampala was the main capital of this independent territory in the ancient era.The main river or holy river named The Ganga had divided this state into parts or branches. The northern Panchali was at Ahichhtra ( at present in Bareilly of Uttarpradesh state of India)and the southern Panchala at Kampilaya. The famous city named Kannauj was located in this Mahajanapada or kingdom.

Matsya: This Mahajanapada was in Jaipur, Alwar, and Bharatpur of Rajasthan district of India.The capital of this mahajanapada was Viratanagara.The founder of this mahajanapad was Virata.King Sujata reigned this mahajanapada as well as Chedis , other mahajanapada among sixteen mahajanapada or independent territory of ancient India.

Surasena: Surasena was the other important Mahajanapada of ancient India. The capital of this mahajanapada was Mathura on the bank of river Yamuna. King Avantipura reigned this mahajanapada in the ancient period. The government system of this mahajanapada was in republic form.The king Avantiputra was the Chief disciple of Gautam Buddha's.

Ashmaka: This mahajanapada is located in the heart of two rivers Godavari and Manjira.The capital of this Mahajanapada was Potali of Telangana of India.It was the southernmost mahajanapada of ancient history of India.This southernmost territory was reigned by Kshatriyas.

Avanti: Avanti was located in the central Malwa now in Madhyapradesh state of India.This mahajanapada was divided into two parts by the Vindhya mountain range.North Avanti , the capital of it was Ujjain and the south Avanti, the capital of it was Mahismati.King Pradyot ruled this mahajanapada who was also the father in law of Udayana.

Gandhara; Ghandhara is located in Peshawar and Rawalpindi also in Kashmir valley.The capital of Gandhara was Taxila or Takshaashila.It was a major center of trade and commerce as well as learning and coaching, education hub of ancient India.Ghandhari was the princess of this mahajanapada, the name of the sate may be so.Panini and Kautilya are the world-renowned learned person of Taxila University. King Pushkarasarin ruled this mahajanapada.This mahajanapada had a cordial relationship with Magadha and waged a successful war against the Mahajanapada of Avanti. This mahajanapada was conquered by the Persian king according to The Behistun Inscription of Achaemenid emperor Darius.

Kamboja: This mahajanapada was located in Poonch, capital of this mahajanapada was itself now in Rajouri and Hajra of Kashmir of Pakistan occupied.Kamboja was mainly renowned in ancient era for the breed of excellent horses.Kamboja introduced Republican administration according to Kautilya' Arthasastra and Ashoka's edict no 13.

Magadha: Magadha was the most powerful mahajanapada of ancient history of India.It' the capital  was located in Girivjara or Rajagira now in Patna and Gaya district of Bihar. Haryana dynasty ruled this mahajanapada.This mahajanapada initiated the policy of imperialism like the British.The founder of this independent territory was Jarasandha and Brihadratha, main founder of this mahajanapada was Ajatashtru and Bibisara.
Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc
Overview of Mahajanapada Upsc

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